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Please check your booking number and PIN and try again. Only a customer who has booked through Booking. This lets us know that our reviews come from real guests, like you. If you stayed at this property through Booking. There was a problem loading the reviews. Try again. Boasting a garden, an outdoor pool and garden views, ‘t Vliethuys is situated in Zwijndrecht. The accommodation is Featuring a terrace with pool views, this homestay also comes with a cable flat-screen TV, a well-equipped kitchen with a microwave, a fridge and an oven, as well as 1 bathroom with a shower and a hairdryer.

Brussels is The nearest airport is Antwerp International Airport, 7. You will receive an email as soon as the property has answered your question. Cancellation and prepayment policies vary according to accommodation type. Please enter the dates of your stay and check the conditions of your required room.

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Tourists are permitted to enter, but quarantine is likely required. Moderate Entry Requirements. Flight Price Trends for the Coming 12 Weeks. In addition, they seem to represent a diverse group of strains that were present across Europe between the 14th and 18th century AD Fig.

This phenomenon likely arises from enrichment of non-target DNA stemming from closely related organisms, an issue frequently encountered in ancient metagenomic datasets 18 , 29 , Moreover, these genomes had notably longer branch lengths in comparison to other contemporaneous isolates from the same archaeological contexts Supplementary Fig.

Their assessment using the recently developed SNPEvaluation tool 28 see Methods classified their private SNP calls as false-positive, suggesting that the observed branch lengths are erroneous Supplementary Data 2. Similarly, the previously published SLC and BSS31 genomes 8 were also excluded from further analyses as they also showed high heterozygosity Supplementary Fig. Phylogenetic positioning of second pandemic strains. The image shows a graphical representation of Branches 1—4 see Supplementary Fig.

Dashed branches denote uncertainty in the private SNP calls of the respective genomes. Sub-clades of published genomes are collapsed to enhance tree visibility. Numbers n in brackets indicate the number of strains represented in each collapsed branch. Node support was estimated using 1, bootstrap iterations. Scale denotes substitutions per site. Our phylogenetic reconstruction shows that the LAI isolate from Laishevo is ancestral to the BD isolates from southern, central, western and northern Europe, as well as to the previously published late 14th-century isolates from London 10 and Bolgar City 9 Fig.

This genome possesses only one derived SNP distinguishing it from the N07 polytomy that gave rise to Branches 1—4 Fig. Since all other second pandemic genomes share an additional derived SNP on Branch 1, we interpret LAI as the most ancestral form of the strain that entered Europe during the initial wave of the second pandemic that has been identified to date. Regarding the central and western European genomes, NAB from Nabburg does not show differences compared to previously published BD genomes from London and Barcelona 9 , In addition, NMS from Cambridge was genotyped based on inspection of its SNP profile, despite it not fulfilling the genomic coverage criteria for inclusion in our phylogenetic analysis Supplementary Table 3 , as its archaeological context makes it distinct from other Y.

By contrast, certain isolates associated with the BD period are seemingly distinct. For example, TRP from Toulouse, which dates to — based on archaeological evidence, forms its own unique branch Fig.

In addition, after visual inspection, all such variants appear in regions of the genome where reads from diverse sources seem to be mapping Supplementary Fig. Finally, despite exclusion of BSS31 Siena, Italy from phylogenetic analysis, two previously identified unique SNPs in this genome were manually inspected, since they were presented as evidence for Y. We, hence, conclude that apart from LAI all reconstructed genomes associated with the initial pandemic wave have identical genotypes.

In addition, we note that structural rearrangements could provide alternative means of genetic diversity. Although architectural differences are vastly abundant among modern Y. From this divergence, one clade gave rise to the strains associated with outbreaks in Germany and Switzerland 15th—17th century AD , and the second encompassed strains from 17th-century London BED and 18th-century Marseille OBS.

Notably, these two clades show dissimilar rates of substitution accumulation. Previous studies have demonstrated that overdispersion among Y. Our analysis based on the coalescent skyline model Fig.

In particular, we observe the fastest rates in three internal branches Fig. The second is the branch leading to the 1. The broad history of 1. ANT and the time period associated with its establishment in Africa are unknown, though an introduction from Eurasia has been hypothesised 9 , The third, which displays the fastest rate within the entire Branch 1, is the branch leading to 1. ORI isolates Fig. Our results, therefore, support the idea of faster substitution rates during epidemic spread, here particularly noticeable for lineages known to have expanded over wide geographic areas.

Substitution rate variation across the Y. The tree was viewed in FigTree v1. The tree depicts the substitution rate variation across Branch 1 of the Y. The isolates used for this analysis overlap with the ones used for the SNP and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis see Supplementary Fig. Labels of genomes associated with the second and third plague pandemics appear in bold. The mean substitution rate across the tree including 2. The time scale is shown in years before the present BP , where present denotes the most recently isolated modern Y.

To investigate the genomic profiles of all newly reconstructed genomes, we analysed the presence or absence of potential virulence-associated and evolutionary determinant genes located on the Y.

We find that the genetic profiles of some of the previously characterised historical strains are influenced by the capture design used for their retrieval. Regarding the newly reconstructed strains, we find that most possess all analysed genes with the exception of the New Churchyard BED and Marseille OBS strains that lack the magnesium transporter genes mgtB and mgtC , as well as the Cambridge NMS strain that is lacking the inv gene Fig.

While invasin is associated with epithelial colonisation of Y. By contrast, magnesium transporters are considered vital for Y. Specifically for Y. Both mgtB and mgtC are present in all modern Y. Apart from mgtB and mgtC , this region encompasses a set of 34 additional genes that code for both characterised and hypothetical proteins, most of which seem to be associated with phenotypic characteristics that appear inactivated in Y.

In addition, the clade encompassing this deletion is associated with some of the late outbreaks of the second plague pandemic, i. These genomes are described elsewhere and date within a wide temporal interval — AD , though based on existing data they appear to be the youngest first pandemic isolates sequenced to date Assessment of chromosomal and gene-specific coverage in Y.

Here, we show an assessment of the presence or absence of 80 previously defined 36 potential virulence and evolutionary determinants across the Y.

PE2, 0. PE4 and 1. ORI 23 , as well as Y. The heatmap was plotted in R version 3. Refer to Supplementary Fig. The plots were constructed to a maximum coverage of fold, and the average coverage was calculated over 3,bp windows. A series of studies have sufficiently demonstrated the preservation of Y.

This study presents an extensive sampling of multiple European epidemic burials from the period between the 14th and 17th centuries in order to gain a more complete picture of Y. Here, we nearly triple the amount of genomic data available from that time period Fig. Based on historical sources alone, it has been difficult to determine the time at which Y. A commonly accepted view dates its arrival in the southwest, particularly in cities of Astrakhan and Sarai, in 1 , 44 with subsequent spread into southern Europe from the Crimean peninsula.

On the other hand, the dispersal of plague into northwestern Russia i. Importantly, through analysis of our new strain from Laishevo LAI , which is phylogenetically ancestral to all second pandemic strains sequenced to date Fig. Previous analyses have proposed East Asia as the mostly likely candidate for the N07 polytomy 10 , 23 Fig.

Such claims, however, cannot yet be verified given; 1 the apparent East Asian sampling bias of modern isolates 23 , 45 , 2 the lack of molecular evidence from East Asia dating to the early 14th century and 3 the scarcity of historical documentary sources from this region describing precise disease symptoms In addition, recently published modern Y. The identification of low genomic diversity during the initial wave of the second pandemic becomes particularly informative when attempting to reconstruct the spread of plague after Previous research based on climatic proxies 12 as well as PCR 47 and genomic 8 data have proposed multiple introductory waves of Y.

Here, using previously published 8 , 9 , 10 , 14 and new whole-genome data from 20 archaeological sites, we identify that all genomes associated with post-BD outbreaks in Europe derived from a single ancestral strain that was present in southern, central, western and northern Europe during the BD. We, therefore, interpret the current data as supporting a single entry of Y.

Subsequent to its entry, we observe the formation of two sister lineages Fig. It contains strains from lateth-century Bergen op Zoom, London 10 and the city of Bolgar 9 , as well as extant strains from Africa 1. ANT 48 , and, most importantly, a worldwide set of isolates associated with the third pandemic 1. ORI, 19th—20th centuries 15 , 16 , 23 Fig.

The fact that this lineage has no identified modern descendants is likely related to the disappearance of plague from Europe in the 18th century, possibly due to extinction of local reservoirs, as previously suggested 9. Their distinction is corroborated not only by their genetic and geographic separation Fig. The clade that exhibits a slower substitution rate is mainly represented by temporally and genetically closely related isolates from Germany and Switzerland Fig.

Such an observation may be compatible with the hypothesis of an Alpine rodent reservoir facilitating the spread of plague in Central Europe after the BD 49 , although a possible sampling bias should be noted since the majority of our data derive from this region.

On the other hand, the clade that exhibits a faster substitution rate Fig. Given that both Marseille and London were among the main maritime trade centres in Europe during that time, it is plausible that introduction of the disease in these areas occurred via ships 50 , although sources favouring local epidemic eruptions also exist Previous studies have demonstrated that transmission of Y.

As such, the possibility of maritime introductions of plague into London and Marseille during the second pandemic vastly expands the breadth of potential geographic source s for these strains. This deletion could not be identified in other second pandemic or modern strains in our dataset Supplementary Fig. The inferred virulence potential of mgtB and mgtC genes is associated with intracellular survival of Y. Their co-expression has been shown to affect the virulence exerted by other pathogenic enterobacteria under laboratory conditions 55 , 56 and both genes have been proposed as potential drug targets 40 , Intriguingly, a kb deletion in the same region was identified in genomes associated with late outbreaks of the first plague pandemic 6th—8th century AD 28 , which sets it as a candidate for convergent evolution and raises questions regarding its functional importance.

Nevertheless, since both lineages that show this deletion are likely extinct, its functional characterisation will be of importance to evaluate potential effects on maintenance in mammalian and arthropod hosts, in Europe, during the first and second pandemics. The second plague pandemic has arguably caused the highest levels of mortality of the three recorded plague pandemics 1 , It serves as a classic historical example of rapid infectious disease emergence, long-term local persistence and eventual extinction for reasons that are currently not understood.

We have shown that extensive sampling of ancient Y. In addition, we provide relevant information regarding the initiation and progression of the second pandemic and suggest that a single source reservoir may be insufficient to explain the breadth of epidemics and Y.

Although certain key regions in western Eurasia remain under-sampled for ancient Y. Their integration into disease modelling efforts, which consider vector transmission dynamics 62 , 63 , climatic 12 , 64 , 65 and epidemiological data 66 , as well as a critical re-evaluation of historical records 67 , will become increasingly important for better understanding the second plague pandemic. This powder was then used for DNA extraction, using a protocol optimised for the retrieval of short fragments that are characteristic of ancient DNA Extraction blanks and a positive extraction control cave bear specimen were taken along for every extraction batch.

None of the extracts showed signs of PCR inhibitions and, therefore, all were tested by qPCR for the presence of the plasminogen activator gene pla , located on the Y.

PCR products were not sequenced as all putatively positive samples were subsequently evaluated through whole-genome enrichment and next-generation sequencing. All extraction and PCR blanks were free of amplification products. After irradiation, teeth were weighed and subsequently transferred in 5-ml or ml tubes for DNA extraction.

Adaptors were constructed as previously described The program MALT version 0. A total of 15, genomes were retained in the database. Pre-processed shotgun NGS reads. All putative Y. Following, a double-indexing step was performed where libraries were split into multiple PCR reactions based on their initial quantification 71 , in order to ensure maximal amplification efficiency. A unique index combination index primer containing a unique 8-bp identifier was assigned to every library, and a cycle amplification reaction was used to attach index combinations to DNA library molecules using Pfu Turbo Cx Hotstart DNA Polymerase Agilent.

In-solution whole-genome Y. DNA captures were carried out on well plates. Each sample was either captured in its individual well, or pooled with maximum one more sample from the same site. Capture enrichment was carried out for two rounds, except for sample NMS that was captured for one round. Blanks with non-overlapping index combinations were captured together.

Subsequently, reads were mapped with BWA version 0. Prior to SNP identification, raw pre-processed reads from partially-UDG-treated libraries were trimmed for 2-bp at both ends to remove sites that could be affected by aDNA damage and, subsequently, were re-filtered for length and re-mapped using stringent parameters. Our newly reconstructed genomes were analysed alongside previously published Y.

In the present dataset, a total of 7, variant positions were identified. Subsequently, the annotation as well as the effect of each SNP was determined through the program SnpEff v3. A recent study described the phylogenetic positioning and SNP analysis of five 14th century Y. Volg altijd de instructie van de fabrikant als je een zelftest gebruikt. De serologische test toont aan of er specifieke antistoffen tegen het SARS-CoV-2 virus coronavirus in je bloed zitten.

Antistoffen zijn onderdeel van je afweer, het immuunsysteem en geven aan dat je bescherming tegen de infectie hebt opgebouwd. De antistofreactie is de reactie op de antigenen die op het virus zitten, en zie je dan ook na het vinden van antigenen. Het kan 2 tot 3 weken duren voordat je lichaam de juiste antistoffen maakt en deze voldoende aanwezig zijn in je bloed, om gemeten te kunnen worden.

Na vaccinatie maak je ook antistoffen aan, dus de test wordt ook positief na vaccinatie. Deze test wordt vooral gebruikt voor onderzoek op bevolkingsniveau, door geselecteerde laboratoria. Nederlands English. RIVM De zorg voor morgen begint vandaag. In dit onderwerp Menu ingeklapt Wijzigingsdatum Testen Testen is een belangrijk instrument in de bestrijding van het coronavirus. Tabel met verschillende type testen per doelgroep Klap open. Na blootstelling Zie Uitgangspunten testbeleid en inzet zorgmedewerkers buiten het ziekenhuis.

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Hostel Stayokay Bergen Op Zoom De Brabantse Wal, Bergen op Zoom: the best offers with Destinia

 

Flights from Bodrum to Bali Hotels in Bali. Displayed prices are calculated based on the lowest average weekly prices of the corresponding route on Trip. Flights from Bodrum to Bali One way. Airlines adjust prices for flights from Bodrum to Bali based on the date and time of your booking.

By analyzing data from all airlines, on Trip. How much are flights from Bodrum to Bali? What is the transportation method from the main airport to downtown in Bali? The distance from Ngurah Rai Airport to downtown is about 11km, by taxi about 30 minutes. How many airports are there in Bali DPS? Entry restrictions and flight schedule changes and cancellations are frequently updated and subject to change. If you plan to travel to Bali, please obtain the most updated information from the airline you plan to book your travels with.

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Free parking. Availability We Price Match. When would you like to stay at ‘t Vliethuys? Sorry, reservations for more than 90 nights are not possible. Please enter your dates to check availability. Your departure date is invalid.

Check-in date. Check-out date. Approximate prices in GBP for a 1-night stay. Lock in a great price for your upcoming stay Get instant confirmation with FREE cancellation on most rooms! This property has taken extra health and hygiene measures to ensure that your safety is their priority. Prices you can’t beat! Guest reviews 7. See availability.

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Ask a question Thanks! Restaurant d’ Ouwe Werf. Restaurant de Oude Kroon. Restaurant De Villa. Natural beauty. River de Schelde. Lake Vogeltjesmarkt Antwerpen. Closest airports. How to get to ‘t Vliethuys from Antwerp International Airport. Free parking is available. Actual travel distances may vary. Missing some information? Thanks for your response. Facilities of ‘t Vliethuys. Free private parking is possible on site reservation is not needed.

WiFi is available in all areas and is free of charge. Living Area. Room Amenities. Upper floors accessible by stairs only. Outdoor swimming pool. Golf course within 3 km Additional charge.

Tennis court Off-site Additional charge. Reception services. Entertainment and family services. Languages spoken. House rules ‘t Vliethuys takes special requests – add in the next step! Check-in – Check-out – Child policies Children of any age are welcome.

No age restriction There is no age requirement for check-in. Smoking Smoking is not allowed. Pets Pets are not allowed. Apart from mgtB and mgtC , this region encompasses a set of 34 additional genes that code for both characterised and hypothetical proteins, most of which seem to be associated with phenotypic characteristics that appear inactivated in Y.

In addition, the clade encompassing this deletion is associated with some of the late outbreaks of the second plague pandemic, i.

These genomes are described elsewhere and date within a wide temporal interval — AD , though based on existing data they appear to be the youngest first pandemic isolates sequenced to date Assessment of chromosomal and gene-specific coverage in Y. Here, we show an assessment of the presence or absence of 80 previously defined 36 potential virulence and evolutionary determinants across the Y. PE2, 0. PE4 and 1.

ORI 23 , as well as Y. The heatmap was plotted in R version 3. Refer to Supplementary Fig. The plots were constructed to a maximum coverage of fold, and the average coverage was calculated over 3,bp windows.

A series of studies have sufficiently demonstrated the preservation of Y. This study presents an extensive sampling of multiple European epidemic burials from the period between the 14th and 17th centuries in order to gain a more complete picture of Y.

Here, we nearly triple the amount of genomic data available from that time period Fig. Based on historical sources alone, it has been difficult to determine the time at which Y. A commonly accepted view dates its arrival in the southwest, particularly in cities of Astrakhan and Sarai, in 1 , 44 with subsequent spread into southern Europe from the Crimean peninsula.

On the other hand, the dispersal of plague into northwestern Russia i. Importantly, through analysis of our new strain from Laishevo LAI , which is phylogenetically ancestral to all second pandemic strains sequenced to date Fig.

Previous analyses have proposed East Asia as the mostly likely candidate for the N07 polytomy 10 , 23 Fig. Such claims, however, cannot yet be verified given; 1 the apparent East Asian sampling bias of modern isolates 23 , 45 , 2 the lack of molecular evidence from East Asia dating to the early 14th century and 3 the scarcity of historical documentary sources from this region describing precise disease symptoms In addition, recently published modern Y.

The identification of low genomic diversity during the initial wave of the second pandemic becomes particularly informative when attempting to reconstruct the spread of plague after Previous research based on climatic proxies 12 as well as PCR 47 and genomic 8 data have proposed multiple introductory waves of Y. Here, using previously published 8 , 9 , 10 , 14 and new whole-genome data from 20 archaeological sites, we identify that all genomes associated with post-BD outbreaks in Europe derived from a single ancestral strain that was present in southern, central, western and northern Europe during the BD.

We, therefore, interpret the current data as supporting a single entry of Y. Subsequent to its entry, we observe the formation of two sister lineages Fig. It contains strains from lateth-century Bergen op Zoom, London 10 and the city of Bolgar 9 , as well as extant strains from Africa 1.

ANT 48 , and, most importantly, a worldwide set of isolates associated with the third pandemic 1. ORI, 19th—20th centuries 15 , 16 , 23 Fig. The fact that this lineage has no identified modern descendants is likely related to the disappearance of plague from Europe in the 18th century, possibly due to extinction of local reservoirs, as previously suggested 9.

Their distinction is corroborated not only by their genetic and geographic separation Fig. The clade that exhibits a slower substitution rate is mainly represented by temporally and genetically closely related isolates from Germany and Switzerland Fig.

Such an observation may be compatible with the hypothesis of an Alpine rodent reservoir facilitating the spread of plague in Central Europe after the BD 49 , although a possible sampling bias should be noted since the majority of our data derive from this region. On the other hand, the clade that exhibits a faster substitution rate Fig. Given that both Marseille and London were among the main maritime trade centres in Europe during that time, it is plausible that introduction of the disease in these areas occurred via ships 50 , although sources favouring local epidemic eruptions also exist Previous studies have demonstrated that transmission of Y.

As such, the possibility of maritime introductions of plague into London and Marseille during the second pandemic vastly expands the breadth of potential geographic source s for these strains. This deletion could not be identified in other second pandemic or modern strains in our dataset Supplementary Fig. The inferred virulence potential of mgtB and mgtC genes is associated with intracellular survival of Y.

Their co-expression has been shown to affect the virulence exerted by other pathogenic enterobacteria under laboratory conditions 55 , 56 and both genes have been proposed as potential drug targets 40 , Intriguingly, a kb deletion in the same region was identified in genomes associated with late outbreaks of the first plague pandemic 6th—8th century AD 28 , which sets it as a candidate for convergent evolution and raises questions regarding its functional importance.

Nevertheless, since both lineages that show this deletion are likely extinct, its functional characterisation will be of importance to evaluate potential effects on maintenance in mammalian and arthropod hosts, in Europe, during the first and second pandemics. The second plague pandemic has arguably caused the highest levels of mortality of the three recorded plague pandemics 1 , It serves as a classic historical example of rapid infectious disease emergence, long-term local persistence and eventual extinction for reasons that are currently not understood.

We have shown that extensive sampling of ancient Y. In addition, we provide relevant information regarding the initiation and progression of the second pandemic and suggest that a single source reservoir may be insufficient to explain the breadth of epidemics and Y.

Although certain key regions in western Eurasia remain under-sampled for ancient Y. Their integration into disease modelling efforts, which consider vector transmission dynamics 62 , 63 , climatic 12 , 64 , 65 and epidemiological data 66 , as well as a critical re-evaluation of historical records 67 , will become increasingly important for better understanding the second plague pandemic.

This powder was then used for DNA extraction, using a protocol optimised for the retrieval of short fragments that are characteristic of ancient DNA Extraction blanks and a positive extraction control cave bear specimen were taken along for every extraction batch.

None of the extracts showed signs of PCR inhibitions and, therefore, all were tested by qPCR for the presence of the plasminogen activator gene pla , located on the Y. PCR products were not sequenced as all putatively positive samples were subsequently evaluated through whole-genome enrichment and next-generation sequencing.

All extraction and PCR blanks were free of amplification products. After irradiation, teeth were weighed and subsequently transferred in 5-ml or ml tubes for DNA extraction. Adaptors were constructed as previously described The program MALT version 0.

A total of 15, genomes were retained in the database. Pre-processed shotgun NGS reads. All putative Y. Following, a double-indexing step was performed where libraries were split into multiple PCR reactions based on their initial quantification 71 , in order to ensure maximal amplification efficiency. A unique index combination index primer containing a unique 8-bp identifier was assigned to every library, and a cycle amplification reaction was used to attach index combinations to DNA library molecules using Pfu Turbo Cx Hotstart DNA Polymerase Agilent.

In-solution whole-genome Y. DNA captures were carried out on well plates. Each sample was either captured in its individual well, or pooled with maximum one more sample from the same site. Capture enrichment was carried out for two rounds, except for sample NMS that was captured for one round. Blanks with non-overlapping index combinations were captured together.

Subsequently, reads were mapped with BWA version 0. Prior to SNP identification, raw pre-processed reads from partially-UDG-treated libraries were trimmed for 2-bp at both ends to remove sites that could be affected by aDNA damage and, subsequently, were re-filtered for length and re-mapped using stringent parameters.

Our newly reconstructed genomes were analysed alongside previously published Y. In the present dataset, a total of 7, variant positions were identified. Subsequently, the annotation as well as the effect of each SNP was determined through the program SnpEff v3. A recent study described the phylogenetic positioning and SNP analysis of five 14th century Y. As these genomes were non-UDG treated, they were reanalysed here using different criteria compared to other second pandemic and modern genomes in our dataset.

The obtained mean coverage for each of the five re-analysed genomes was: 3. In addition, the obtained average fragment lengths for the five re-analysed genomes were as follows: A frequent challenge faced when using ancient metagenomic datasets to reconstruct bacterial genomes is a strong environmental signal that can interfere with SNP assignments, especially in low-coverage data Such an effect can interfere with phylogenetic analyses by creating artificial branch lengths, which can in turn affect evolutionary inferences.

Subsequently, the region around each SNP was evaluated within a bp window, and was accepted as true when fulfilling the following criteria: i the ratio of coverage between the lenient and stringent mapping was not higher than 1. Heterozygous variant calls were investigated given the disparity of branch lengths observed in certain newly reconstructed and previously published genomes see Supplementary Figs.

In order to calculate the substitution rate variation across Y. In addition, we used the strain 2. We used TempEst v1. The calculated correlation coefficient R and R 2 values were 0. Our BEAUti setup took into consideration all archaeological, radiocarbon and sampling dates of both ancient and modern genomes Supplementary Data 6 that were used as calibration points for the Bayesian phylogeny.

Divergence dates for each node in the tree were estimated as years before the present, where the year was set as the present since it represents the most recently isolated modern Y. ORI MG Monophyletic clades were defined based on the ML phylogeny Supplementary Fig.

The GTR 79 substitution model 4 gamma rate categories and a lognormal relaxed clock clock rate tested and strict clock rejected in MEGA7 77 were used to set up two separate analyses using the coalescent constant size 86 and coalescent Bayesian skyline 87 demographic models.

For this, each of the described runs was carried out for an additional 50,, states , states divided into steps using an alpha parameter of 0. The results produced by the run considering this demographic model were then viewed in Tracer v1. Finally, the skyline plot was produced and viewed using Tracer v1. ORI-CO92, 0. PE4-Microtus Y. The coverage across 80 chromosomal and 43 plasmid virulence-associated and evolutionary determinant genes that were previously defined 36 was calculated using bedtools The results are plotted in the form of a heatmap using the ggplot2 ref.

In addition, we used BWA-MEM 80 to explore the precise coordinates of observed gene or region losses in all affected genomes using default parameters. For the visualisation of an identified deletion across BED and OBS isolates, we computed the average coverage across 3,bp windows in representative Y.

Further information on research design is available in the Nature Research Reporting Summary linked to this article. Other data supporting the findings of the study are available in this article and its Supplementary Information files, or from the corresponding authors upon request.

Benedictow, O. Biraben, J. Parkhill, J. Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. Nature , — Gage, K. Natural history of plague: perspectives from more than a century of research. Prentice, M. Lancet , — Article Google Scholar. Tikhomirov, E. Epidemiology and Distribution of Plague. Dennis, D.

Alexander, J. Google Scholar. Namouchi, A. Integrative approach using Yersinia pestis genomes to revisit the historical landscape of plague during the Medieval Period. Natl Acad. USA , E—E Spyrou, M. Historical Y. Cell Host Microbe 19 , — Bos, K.

A draft genome of Yersinia pestis from victims of the Black Death. Digitizing historical plague. Schmid, B. Climate-driven introduction of the Black Death and successive plague reintroductions into Europe. USA , — Seifert, L. Genotyping Yersinia pestis in historical plague: evidence for long-term persistence of Y.

Eighteenth century Yersinia pestis genomes reveal the long-term persistence of an historical plague focus. Pollitzer, R.

The Plague No. Morelli, G. Yersinia pestis genome sequencing identifies patterns of global phylogenetic diversity. Schuenemann, V. Targeted enrichment of ancient pathogens yielding the pPCP1 plasmid of Yersinia pestis from victims of the Black Death. Salmonella enterica genomes from victims of a major sixteenth-century epidemic in Mexico. Huebler, R. Briggs, A. Removal of deaminated cytosines and detection of in vivo methylation in ancient DNA.

Nucleic Acids Res. Meyer, M. Illumina sequencing library preparation for highly multiplexed target capture and sequencing. Cold Spring Harb. The Stone Age plague and its persistence in Eurasia. Cui, Y. Historical variations in mutation rate in an epidemic pathogen, Yersinia pestis.

Kislichkina, A. Nineteen whole-genome assemblies of Yersinia pestis subsp. Genome Announc. Zhgenti, E. Genome assemblies for 11 Yersinia pestis strains isolated in the Caucasus region. Kutyrev, V. Phylogeny and classification of Yersinia pestis through the lens of strains from the plague foci of Commonwealth of Independent States.

Eroshenko, G. Yersinia pestis strains of ancient phylogenetic branch 0. ANT are widely spread in the high-mountain plague foci of Kyrgyzstan. Keller, M. Feldman, M. A high-coverage Yersinia pestis genome from a sixth-century Justinianic plague victim. Nature ,

 

Homestay ‘t Vliethuys, Zwijndrecht, Belgium –

 
If you want to make multiple appointments, each person has to book separately in the booking system with his / her personal data. Test address: Arnoldus Asselbergsstraat 11, GL. Opening hours Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri: – Opening hours Sat, Sun: – PCR-Economy: results within 24 hours. Test result report available in the following languages. English. Contact us: [email protected] Oct 26,  · Book your Corona Test in Bergen op Zoom at ! Book online: quick and easy PCR test and antigen test RIVM validated. Die Nummer 1 in den Niederlanden! Termin vereinbaren. DE. Ein negatives Testergebnis erhalten Sie zusammen mit einer NON-COVID-Bescheinigung. Mit diesem Zertifikat können Sie ruhigen Gewissens :

 
 

Global BC – What COVID rules will apply to Spring Break trips?

 
 
Test result report available in the following languages. English. Contact us: [email protected] Het is ook mogelijk om een PCR reiscertificaat te verkrijgen aan de andere kant van de grens met België. Kijk hiervoor op COVID test reiscertificaat verkrijgen in Antwerpen. Klik hier voor Corona sneltesten in Breda, Bergen op Zoom, Roosendaal en andere locaties. Oct 26,  · Book your Corona Test in Bergen op Zoom at ! Book online: quick and easy PCR test and antigen test RIVM validated. Die Nummer 1 in den Niederlanden! Termin vereinbaren. DE. Ein negatives Testergebnis erhalten Sie zusammen mit einer NON-COVID-Bescheinigung. Mit diesem Zertifikat können Sie ruhigen Gewissens :